HAO Eclipses

HAO Eclipse Archive

The High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research has built an archive of images of solar eclipses which are deemed to be of sufficient quality for research.

The data begin from 1869, extend to the present day and are from a diverse range of sources, but have been converted to a standard format. The data up to 1969 were all compiled by Jack Eddy between 1969 and 1971. Original plates were painstakingly photographed by Eddy and associates at HAO onto plates currently archived at HAO.

HAO will maintain this archive for the community's use and comments are welcome. In particular, we encourage others to submit to us any data which might be included in this eclipse archive.


Newkirk White Light Coronal Camera

These images were obtained with the Newkirk White Light Coronal Camera (Newkirk WLCC), a camera system developed by Gordon A. Newkirk, Jr. This specialized instrument photographs the corona in red light, 6500 A -- through a radially graded filter that suppresses the bright inner corona in order to show the much fainter streamers of the outer corona in the same photograph.

12 November 1966, Pulacayo, Bolivia
GIF
7 March 1970, San Carlos Yautepec, Mexico
GIF
Scanned photo of eclipse composite with X-ray image

30 June 1973, Loiengalani, Kenya
GIF
16 February 1980, India
This eclipse was very near the solar maximum that occurred in late 1979.
GIF, TIFF,
Comparison of 1980 and 1994 eclipses,
more info

31 July 1981, Tarma, Siberia
GIF, more info
11 June 1983, Tanjung Kodok, Java
GIF

18 March 1988, Phillipines
This eclipse occurred prior to the solar maximum in late 1989.
GIF, TIFF
11 July 1991, Mauna Loa, Hawaii
This eclipse occurred slightly after the solar maximum in late 1989.
Much more info can be found below.
GIF, TIFF

3 November 1994, Putre, Chile
This eclipse was very near the solar minimum that occurred in early 1996.
GIF, TIFF,
Comparison of 1980 and 1994 eclipses
3 November 1994, Putre, Chile
Composite of WLCC and Yohkoh images of 1994 eclipse.
GIF

If you use the images above, please credit HAO and Rhodes College for the 1980 and 1991 eclipse images, and HAO for the 1966, 1970, 1973, 1981, 1983, 1988 and 1994 eclipse images. Credit should be something similar to 19?? eclipse image courtesy Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee, and High Altitude Observatory (HAO), University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, Colorado. UCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. -or- 19?? eclipse image courtesy High Altitude Observatory (HAO), University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), Boulder, Colorado. UCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

POISE Instrument

The POISE has an aperture of 80 mm, an effective focal length of 1000 mm, and a field of view of 6.5X6.5 solar radii on a Loral CCD with 2034X2034 pixels. The pixel size is 3.1X3.1 arc seconds. The spectral band of the image is set by an Andover filter with a central wavelength of 620 nm and a bandwidth of 10 nm. The CCD camera is a Pixel Vision Spectra Video camera with 16 bit digitization, an electron well depth of 95,000 electrons, and a read noise 20 electrons. The polarization analyzer contains fixed linear and quarter wave polarizers together with a Meadowlark Optics liquid crystal variable retarder. The POISE98 images can be processed numerically to remove the radial gradient due to the rapid outward decrease in the coronal density. This numerical 'flattening' replaces the radially graded optical filter used in the photographic Newkirk camera which was used in previous HAO eclipse expeditions.

26 February 1998, Curaçao
GIF
26 February 1998, Curaçao
Edge enhanced.
GIF

Link: Addition information and complete POISE 1998 eclipse dataset

.

MLSO Observations

MLSO was observing the day of the 23 November, 2003 eclipse. This is the Mk4 average image of the white light corona for that day that can be used for comparison with eclipse images for that day.


Other Eclipse Websites

The total solar eclipse of 1991 July 11, was photographed from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, by a research team from the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado and Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennesee. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

The photograph of the solar corona was taken with a camera system developed by Gordon A. Newkirk, Jr. This specialized instrument photographs the corona in red light, 6500 A -- through a radially graded filter that suppresses the bright inner corona in order to show the much fainter streamers of the outer corona in the same photograph.

In using this image, you must credit: High Altitude Observatory and Rhodes College.


Technical Information for image

Time:     17:31:11 UT 
Pangle:   1.60 degrees     Heliocentric north is 1.6 degrees counter
                           clockwise of vertical.  Vertical (top) is
			   geocentric north.  Left, (9 o'clock) is east.

			   To assist in orientation, the darkest region is to
			   the NORTH (top).  There is a bright "hook" prominence
			   in the NORTHWEST (upper right) and a barely visible
			   prominence in the SOUTHWEST (lower right).  There 
			   are several dots of prominences just slightly 
			   SOUTH of EAST (left, and just a little down).
 

Objective aperture  11.4 cm
Focal length         178 cm
Focal ratio          f/15
 
Film Kodak Technical Pan / 2415
 
Development   D19 - 5 minutes  (Film was developed at Sacramento Peak 
                                Observatory by Lou Gilliam)
 
Wavelength isolation filer - Schott OG-3
Effective wavelength       - 6500 A
 
Exposure  27 seconds  
 
Radial filter range - 10^4 in transmission.
 
Note:  There are round dark circular artifacts in the image.  These are
       the result of out of focus dust within the telescope.
]

Additional image sizes and formats:

The High Altitude Observatory sent two crews to analyze the total solar eclipse on Thursday, 26 February 1998. One team, in collaboration with Don Hassler of Southwest Research Institute, Boulder Colorado, was stationed on the ground at Curaçao. The other team, led by Profs. Bob MacQueen (Rhodes College) and Jeff Kuhn (Michigan State University [MSU] and National Solar Observatory [NSO]) included other researchers from Rhodes, NSO, MSU and from Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau Germany, as well as HAO. The latter team viewed the eclipse from the NCAR C-130 research aircraft, flying from Howard Air Force Base near Panama City. The eclipse took place in these areas between 10:00AM and 12:00PM MST.

This image was taken with the POISE instrument by the HAO Eclipse Team in Curaçao at ~18:11 UT. In using this image, you must credit: High Altitude Observatory.


Additional image sizes and formats (right click to download):

  • white light intensity image, FITS format, 16.6 Mb (calibrated)
    • Field of view is 6.748 solar radii. The image is created from four 4" exposures, four 1" exposures and four 1/4" exposures. The 4" exposures are summed and where they are saturated the intensity-scaled sum of the 1" exposures is substituted and where the 1" exposures are saturated the intensity-scaled 1/4" exposures are substituted. Images are calibrated using HAO standard opals and a linear polarizer.
  • polarization brightness image, FITS format, 16.6 Mb (calibrated)
    • Created using the same images as IMerge above but utilizing the polarization modulation for each exposure time. Similarly to intensity saturated regions in long exposure, intensity have pB replaced by pB from shorter exposures. Images are calibrated using HAO standard opals and a linear polarizer.
  • reduced scale image, gif format, 88 kb (uncalibrated)
  • reduced scale image, tiff format, 225 kb (uncalibrated)
  • full scale image, gif format, 2.9 Mb (uncalibrated)
  • full scale image, tiff format, 3.6 Mb (uncalibrated)
  • full scale image / FALSE COLOR, tiff format, 2.9 Mb (uncalibrated)
  • PEPPI Eclipse image, tiff format. This uncalibrated, enhanced image was taken by the HAO Eclipse Team in Curacao at ~18:12 UT.
  • PEPPI eclipse animation merged gif format (1.4Mb). This animation of (averaged, enhanced) PEPPI images shows some changes in polar plumes. Can you spot them?

All POISE data for 1998 eclipse

Visit the POISE data directory for access to all data taken by the instrument during the 1998 eclipse.

Southwest Research Institute:

Check out the eclipse data from Southwest Research Institute.

Mauna Loa Solar Observatory:

The Mk3 Coronameter, located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) on the big island of Hawaii, collected coronal data on eclipse day. This an average of images taken between 17:36 and 18:43 UT. The eclipse itself was not visible from Hawaii.

'Scarab' Image

Enhanced, calibrated "Intensity" image of the solar corona made at the total solar eclipse on 26 February 1998 in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, with the HAO Polarimetric Instrument for the Solar Eclipse 1998 (POISE98). This image shows both the plumes at the solar poles and the coronal streamers nearer the Sun's equator at onset of Solar Cycle 23.

The POISE has an aperture of 80 mm, an effective focal length of 1000 mm, and a field of view of 6.5X6.5 solar radii on a Loral CCD with 2034X2034 pixels. The pixel size is 3.1X3.1 arc seconds. The spectral band of the image is set by an Andover filter with a central wavelength of 620 nm and a bandwidth of 10 nm. The CCD camera is a Pixel Vision Spectra Video camera with 16 bit digitization, an electron well depth of 95,000 electrons, and a read noise 20 electrons. The polarization analyzer contains fixed linear and quarter wave polarizers together with a Meadowlark Optics liquid crystal variable retarder. This image is a calibrated "intensity" composite of a series of 0.25, 1.0 and 4 second exposures.

The POISE98 images can be processed numerically to remove the radial gradient due to the rapid outward decrease in the coronal density. This numerical 'flattening' replaces the radially graded optical filter used in the photographic Newkirk camera which was used in previous HAO eclipse expeditions.

Specifically, the processing involved to produce this image was: dividing a r^-5 filtered, 2-D sobel filtered image, by a r^-5 filtered image. This results in great edge enhancements and discernibility of fine structure in the data. Such fine details improve understanding of a fundamental solar physics question: "Why is the solar corona so hot, and how does it get that way?"

Is is known that most of the heating occurs very close to the solar limb, that is, very low in the corona. And, is only at eclipses where one can observe the corona in this region.

The HAO expedition team for the '98 eclipse is Alice Lecinski, Kim Streander, David Elmore, Greg Card, Bruce Lites, and Steve Tomczyk. David Elmore developed and perfected the calibration and filtering procedure. Alice Lecinski assisted. O.R. White provided editting support, and wrote much of the above caption. R. Lull provided instrumentation support.

The High Altitude Observatory is a division of the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is operated by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research under contract with U.S. National Science Foundation.


Additional versions of edge-enhanced scarab image:

  • edge enhanced image / FALSE COLOR, gif format, 1338547 bytes. Calibrated intensity data run through various filters and processing to enhance edges and fine structure.
  • edge enhanced image / FALSE COLOR, ps format, 32507617 bytes. Calibrated intensity data run through various filters and processing to enhance edges and fine structure.
  • edge enhanced image / FALSE COLOR, tiff format, 1335288 bytes. Calibrated intensity data run through various filters and processing to enhance edges and fine structure.

Alternate color table (1.4 Mb GIF)


Monochrome color table (785 kb GIF)


Eclipse images from 16 February 1980 Palem, India and 3 November 1994 Putre, Chile.

The 1980 eclipse occurred near solar maximum, and the 1994 eclipse near solar minimum. It is therefore very interesting to compare images from these two times as the contrast in complexity of solar coronal structure is quite apparent.

TIFF, PostScript, false color TIFF, false color postscript


Eclipse image from 16 February 1980 Palem, India

The total solar eclipse of 16 February 1980, photographed at Palem, India, by a research team from the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, and Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. Members of the team were John L. Streete and Leon B. Lacey. The expedition was sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

This photograph of the solar corona was taken with a camera developed by Gordon A. Newkirk, Jr. This specialized instrument photographs the corona in red light -- 6400A -- through a radially graded filter that suppresses the bright inner corona in order to show the much fainter streamers of the outer corona in the same photograph.

Credit image to: High Altitude Observatory and Rhodes College. The High Altitude Observatory is a division of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.


Technical Information for image

The image has been rotated to heliocentric coordinates. North is to the top, East to the left.
objective apperature - 11.1 cm
focal length - 178 cm
focal ratio - F1/15
film - Kodak Linagraph Shellburst (70mm)
development - D-76 (1:1) 8.5 min
filter - Schott OG-3
effective wavelength - 6400A
exposure - 24 seconds
radial filter range - 10^4 in transmission 

Eclipse image from 3 November 1994 Putre, Chile

The total solar eclipse of 4 November 1994, photographed at Putre, Chile, by a research team from the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. Members of the team were Greg Card, David Elmore, Alice Lecinski, Kim Streander and Dick White. The expedition was sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

This photograph of the solar corona was taken with a camera developed by Gordon A. Newkirk, Jr. This specialized instrument photographs the corona in red light -- 6400A -- through a radially graded filter that suppresses the bright inner corona in order to show the much fainter streamers of the outer corona in the same photograph.

Credit image to: High Altitude Observatory. The High Altitude Observatory is a division of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado, USA. NCAR is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.


Technical Information for image

The image has been rotated to heliocentric coordinates. North is to the top, East to the left.
objective apperature - 11.1 cm
focal length - 178 cm
focal ratio - F1/15
film - Kodak Technical Pan / 2415 (70mm)
development - D-19 (1:1) 5 min
filter - Schott OG-3
effective wavelength - 6400A
exposure - 30 seconds
radial filter range - 10^4 in transmission